Center for Functional MRI In the Department of Radiology


Journal Articles

NOTE: An updated list of publications may be found at: Liu Publications
  1. Liu TT, Fraser-Smith AC.  Detection of transients in 1/f noise with the undecimated discrete wavelet transform. IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, 48:1458-1462, 2000. [PDF]

  2. Wong EC, Luh WM, Liu TT.  Turbo ASL: arterial spin labeling with higher SNR and temporal resolution. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 44:511-515, 2000. [PDF]

  3. Wong EC, Liu TT, Luh WM, Frank LR, Buxton RB.  A T1 and T2 selective method for improved SNR in CSF attenuated imaging: T2-FLAIR. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 45:529-532,2000. [PDF]

  4. Liu TT, Wong EC, Frank LR.,Buxton RB. Detection Power,Estimation Efficiency, and Predictability in Event-Related fMRI. NeuroImage, 13: 759-773, 2001.[PDF]

  5. Miller KL, Luh WM, Liu TT, Martinez A, Obata T, Wong EC, Frank LR, Buxton RB. Nonlinear temporal dynamics of the cerebral blood flow response. Human Brain Mapping, 13:1-12,2001. [PDF]

  6. Liu TT, Wong EC, Frank LR, Buxton RB. Analysis and Design of Perfusion Based Event-Related fMRI Experiments. NeuroImage, 16:269-282, 2002. [PDF]

  7. Frank LR, Wong EC, Liu TT, Buxton RB.  Increased diffusion sensitivity using hyperechoes. Magn. Reson. Med., 49(6):1098-105, 2003. [PDF]

  8. Liu TT and Frank LR  Efficiency, power, and entropy in event-related FMRI with multiple trial types. Part I: theory. Neuroimage, 21(1): 387-400, 2004. [PDF] [Erratum]

  9. Liu TT. Efficiency, power, and entropy in event-related fMRI with multiple trial types. Part II: design of experiments. Neuroimage, 21(1): 401-13, 2004. [PDF]

  10. Obata T, Liu TT, Miller, KL, Luh WM, Wong EC, Frank LR, Buxton RB. Discrepancies between BOLD and flow dynamics in primary and supplementary motor areas: application of the balloon model to the interpretation of BOLD transients, NeuroImage, 21:144-153, 2004. [PDF]

  11. Paulus MP, Feinstein JS, Tapert SF, Liu, TT. Trend detection via temporal difference model predicts inferior prefrontal cortex activation during acquisition of advantageous action selection, NeuroImage, 21:733-743, 2004. [PDF]

  12. Uludag K,  Dubowitz DJ, Yoder EJ, Restom K,  Liu TT,  Buxton RB.  Coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen  consumption during physiological activation and  deactivation measured with fMRI. NeuroImage, 23: 148-155, 2004. [PDF]

  13. Buxton RB, Uludag K,  Dubowitz DJ,  Liu TT. Modeling the Hemodynamic Response to Brain Activation. NeuroImage, 23:S220-33, 2004. [PDF]

  14. Liu TT, Behzadi Y, Restom K, Uludag K, Lu K, Buracas GT, Dubowitz DJ, Buxton RB.  Caffeine Alters the Temporal Dynamics of the Visual BOLD Response.  NeuroImage, 23:1402-13, 2004. [PDF]

  15. Liu TT and Wong EC. A signal processing model for arterial spin labeling functional MRI. NeuroImage, 24:207-15, 2005. [PDF]

  16. Behzadi Y and Liu TT.  An arteriolar compliance model of the cerebral blood flow response to neural stimulus. NeuroImage, 25:1100-11, 2005. [PDF]

  17. Bolar, DS, Levin, DL Hopkins, SR, Frank LR, Liu, TT, Wong, EC, Buxton RB.   Quantification of Regional Pulmonary Blood Flow Using ASL-FAIRER. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 55(6): 1308-1317, 2006. [PDF]

  18. Wong, EC, Cronin M, Wu WC, Inglis BA, Frank LR, Liu TT.   Velocity Selective Arterial Spin Labeling. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 55(6):1334-1341, 2006. [PDF]

  19. Restom K, Behzadi Y, Liu TT.   Physiological noise correction for arterial spin labeling functional MRI. NeuroImage, 31:1104-1115, 2006. [PDF]

  20. Behzadi, Y and Liu TT.   Caffeine reduces the initial dip in the visual BOLD response. NeuroImage, 32:9-15, 2006. [PDF]

  21. Woolrich, M.W., Chiarelli, P., Gallichan, D., Perthen, J.E., Liu, TT.   Bayesian Inference of Hemodynamic Changes in Functional ASL Data, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 58:891-906, 2006. [PDF]

  22. Liu, T.T., and Brown, G.G.   Measurement of Cerebral Perfusion with Arterial Spin Labeling: Part 1. Methods, Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13:517-25, 2007. [PDF]

  23. Brown, G.G., Clark C., Liu T.T.   Measurement of Cerebral Perfusion with Arterial Spin Labeling: Part 2. Clinical Applications, Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13:527-38, 2007. [PDF]

  24. Brown, G.G., Perthen, J.P.., Liu T.T., Buxton, R.B.   A Primer on Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Neuropsychology Review, 2007, 17:107-125. [PDF]

  25. Behzadi, Y., Restom, K., Liau J., Liu, T.T. A Component Based Noise Correction Method (CompCor) for BOLD and Perfusion Based fMRI, NeuroImage, 2007; 37:90-101. [PDF]

  26. Restom, K., Bangen, K.J., Bondi, M.W., Perthen, J.E., Liu, T.T.,   Cerebral Blood Flow and BOLD Responses to a Memory Encoding Task: A Comparison Between Healthy Young and Elderly Adults. NeuroImage, 47:430-439. [PDF]

  27. Buracas, G.T., Liu, T.T., Buxton, R.B., Frank, L.R., Wong, E.C., Imaging Periodic Currents Using Alternating Balanced Steady State Free Precession, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 2008; 59(1) 140-148. [PDF]

  28. Lu, K., Liu, T.T., Bydder, M. Optimal Phase Difference Reconstruction: Comparison of Two Methods, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 2008; 26(1) 142-5. [PDF]

  29. Perthen, J.E., Lansing, A.E., Liau, J., Liu, T.T., Buxton, R.B., Caffeine-induced uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism: A calibrated BOLD fMRI study. NeuroImage, 2008; 40(1) 237-47. [PDF]

  30. Lu, K., Perthen, J.E., Duncan, R.O., Zangwill, L.M., Liu, T.T., Non-invasive Measurement of the Cerebral Blood Flow Response in Human Lateral Geniculate Nucleus with Arterial Spin Labeling fMRI, Human Brain Mapping, 2008; 29:1207-1214. [PDF]

  31. Perthen, M.E., Bydder, M., Restom, K., Liu, T.T., SNR and Functional Sensitivity of BOLD and perfusion-based fMRI using arterial spin labeling with spiral SENSE at 3T, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 2008; 26(4):513-22. [PDF]

  32. Restom, K., Perthen, J.E., Liu, T.T., Calibrated fMRI in the Medial Temporal Lobe During a Memory Encoding Task, NeuroImage, 2008; 40:1495-502. [PDF]

  33. Bangen, K.J., Restom, K., Liu, T.T., Jak, A.J., Wierenga, C.E., Salmon, D.P., Bondi, M.W., Differential age effects on cerebral blood flow and BOLD response to encoding: Associations with cognition and stroke risk. Neurobiology of Aging (In Press; e-pub 19 December 2007). [PDF]

  34. Fleisher, A.S., Podraza, K.M., Bangen, K.J., Taylor, C., Sherzai, A., Sidhar, K., Liu, T.T., Dale, A.M., Buxton, R.B., Cerebral perfusion and oxygenation differences in Alzheimers disease risk, Neurobiology of Aging, (in Press, E-pub 4 March 2008). [PDF]

  35. Liau, J., Perthen, J.E., Liu, T.T., Caffeine reduces the activation extent and contrast-to-noise ratio of the functional cerebral blood flow response but not the BOLD response, NeuroImage (In press). [PDF]

  36. Liu, T.T., Wong,E.C., Buxton, R.B., Perfusion MRI, Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Academic Press, Oxford, 2008 [PDF]

  37. Liau, J., Liu, T.T., Intersubject variability in hypercapnic normalization of the BOLD fMRI response, NeuroImage (In press). [PDF]

NOTE: An updated list of publications may be found at: Liu Publications

Conference Papers

  1. Liu TT, Fraser-Smith AC. Identification and removal of man-made transients from geomagnetic array time series: A wavelet transform based approach. 32nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers.  1998;1363-1367. [PDF]

  2. Liu TT, Fraser-Smith AC. An undecimated wavelet  transform based detector for transients in 1/f noise.  1999 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Phoenix.   1999;1185-1188. [PDF]

Ph.D. Thesis

Liu,TT. Ultra-low frequency magnetic fields in the San Francisco Bay Area: Measurements, Models, and Signal Processing. Stanford University, 1999. [PDF] This thesis describes the ultra-low frequency magnetic fields generated by the Bay Area Rapid Transit System (BART)

Student Theses

  1. Restom, K., Image based physiological noise correction for perfusion-based functional MRI, M.S. Thesis, University of California, San Diego, 2004. [PDF]

  2. Behzadi, Y., Variability in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Influence of the Baseline Vascular State and Physiological Fluctuations. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, San Diego, 2006. [PDF]

  3. Liau, J., Baseline Effects in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, San Diego, 2008.